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Data routing


    Sync Gateway uses channels to make it easy to share a database between a large number of users and control access to the database. Channels are the intermediaries between documents and users. Every document in the database belongs to a set of channels, and every user is allowed to access a set of channels. You use channels to:

    • Partition the data set.

    • Authorize users to access documents.

    • Minimize the amount of data synced down to devices.

    Introduction to channels

    In Sync Gateway, a channel is like a combination of a tag and a message-queue. Channels have relationships to both documents and users:

    • Every document is associated with a set of channels. From the document’s perspectives, the channels are like tags that can be used to identify its type, purpose, accessibility, etc. The app-defined sync function is responsible for assigning every incoming document revision a set of channels as it’s saved to the database.

    • Every user and role has a set of channels that they’re allowed to read. A user can only read documents that are in at least one of the user’s channels (or the channels of roles that user has.) User/role channel access can be assigned directly through the admin API, or via the sync function when a document is updated.

    • A Couchbase Lite "pull" replication can optionally specify what channels it wants to receive documents from. (If it doesn’t, it gets all channels the user has access to.) Client apps can use this ability to intelligently sync with a subset of the available documents from the database.

    There’s not much to a channel besides its name. Channels come into existence as documents are assigned to them. Channels with no documents assigned to them are empty.

    Valid channel names consist of text letters [A–Z, a–z], digits [0–9], and a few special characters [= + / . , _ @]. Channel names are case-sensitive.

    Developing channels

    Now that you’ve learned what a channel is as a concept, let’s put it to practice and see how a channel definition is applied and how it affects the system.

    Mapping documents to channels

    You assign documents to channels either by adding a channels property to the document or by using a sync function. No matter which option you choose, the channel assignment is implicit—​the content of the document determines what channels it belongs to.

    Using a channels property

    Adding a channels property to each document is the easiest way to map documents to channels. The channels property is an array of strings that contains the names of the channels to which the document belongs. If you do not include a channels property in a document, the document does not appear in any channels.

    Using a sync function

    Creating a sync function is a more flexible way to map documents to channels. A sync function is a JavaScript function that takes a document body as input and, based on the document content, decides what channels to assign the document to. The sync function cannot reference any external state and must return the same results every time it’s called on the same input.

    You specify the sync function in the configuration file for the database. Each sync function applies to one database.

    To add the current document to a channel, the sync function calls the special function channel, which takes one or more channel names (or arrays of channel names) as arguments. For convenience, channel ignores null or undefined argument values.

    Defining a sync function overrides the default channel mapping mechanism (the document’s channels property is ignored). The default mechanism is equivalent to the following simple sync function:

    function (doc) {
        channel (doc.channels);

    Learn more about defining a sync function in our Sync Function API guide.

    Replicating channels to Couchbase Lite

    If Couchbase Lite doesn’t specify any channels to replicate, it gets all the channels to which its user account has access. Due to this behavior, most apps do not have to specify a channels filter—​instead they can just do the default sync configuration on the specify the Sync Gateway database URL with no filter in order to replicate the channels of interest.

    To replicate channels to Couchbase Lite, you configure the replication to use a filter named sync_gateway/bychannel with a filter parameter named channels. The value of the channels parameter is a comma-separated list of channels to fetch. The replication from Sync Gateway now pulls only documents tagged with those channels.

    Removing a replicated document

    A document can be removed from a channel without being deleted. For example, this can happen when a new revision is not added to one or more channels that the previous revision was in.

    Subscribers (downstream databases pulling from this database) automatically handle the change. Sync Gateway’s \_changes feed includes one more revision of a document after it stops matching a channel. Couchbase Lite creates a special tombstone revision, adding \_removed:true property to the entry when this happens.

    This algorithm ensures that any views running in Couchbase Lite do not include an obsolete revision. The app code should use views to filter the results rather than just assuming that all documents in its local database are relevant.

    If a user’s access to a channel is revoked or Couchbase Lite stops syncing with a channel, documents that have already been synced are not removed from the user’s device.

    Authorizing user access

    The all_channels property of a user account determines which channels the user can access. Its value is derived from the union of:

    • The user’s admin_channels property, which is settable via the admin REST API. [//]: # "TODO: Link to Programmatic Authorization section."

    • The channels that user has been given access to by access() calls from sync functions invoked for current revisions of documents (see Programmatic Authorization).

    • The all_channels properties of all roles the user belongs to, which are themselves computed according to the above two rules.

    The only documents a user can access are those whose current revisions are assigned to one or more channels the user has access to:

    • A GET request to a document not assigned to one or more of the user’s available channels fails with a 403 error.

    • The \_all_docs property is filtered to return only documents that are visible to the user.

    • The \_changes property ignores requests (via the channels parameter) for channels not visible to the user.

    Write protection — access control of document PUT or DELETE requests—​is done by document validation. This is handled in the sync function rather than a separate validation function.

    After a user is granted access to a new channel, the changes feed incorporates all existing documents in that channel, even those from earlier sequences than the current request’s since parameter. That way the next pull request retrieves all documents to which the user now has access.

    Programmatic Authorization

    Documents can grant users access to channels. This is done by writing a sync function that recognizes such documents and calls a special access() function to grant access.

    The access() function takes the following parameters: a user name or array of user names and a channel name or array of channel names. For convenience, null values are ignored (treated as empty arrays).

    A typical example is a document that represents a shared resource (like a chat room or photo gallery). The document has a members property that lists the users who can access the resource. If the documents belonging to the resource are all tagged with a specific channel, then the following sync function can be used to detect the membership property and assign access to the users listed in it:

    function(doc) {
        if (doc.type == "chatroom") {
            access (doc.members, doc.channel_id)

    In the example, a chat room is represented by a document with a type property set to chatroom. The channel_id property names the associated channel (with which the actual chat messages are tagged) and the members property lists the users who have access.

    The access() function can also operate on roles. If a user name string begins with role: then the remainder of the string is interpreted as a role name. There’s no ambiguity here, because ":" is an illegal character in a user or role name.

    Because anonymous requests are authenticated as the user "GUEST", you can make a channel and its documents public by calling access with a username of GUEST.

    Authorizing Document Updates

    Sync functions can also authorize document updates. A sync function can reject the document by throwing an exception:

    throw ({forbidden: "error message"})

    A 403 Forbidden status and the given error string is returned to the client.

    To validate a document you often need to know which user is changing it, and sometimes you need to compare the old and new revisions. To get access to the old revision, declare the sync function like this:

    function(doc, oldDoc) { ... }

    oldDoc is the old revision of the document (or empty if this is a new document).

    You can validate user privileges by using the helper functions: requireUser, requireRole, or requireAccess. Here’s some examples of how you can use the helper functions:

    // throw an error if username is not "snej"
    // throw if username is not in the list
    requireUser(["snej", "jchris", "tleyden"])
    // throw an error unless the user has the "admin" role
    // throw an error unless the user has one of those roles
    requireRole(["admin", "old-timer"])
    // throw an error unless the user has access to read the "events" channel
    // throw an error unless the can read one of these channels
    requireAccess(["events", "messages"])

    Here’s a simple sync function that validates whether the user is modifying a document in the old document’s owner list:

    function (doc, oldDoc) {
        if (oldDoc) {
            requireUser(oldDoc.owner); // may throw({forbidden: "wrong user"})

    Special channels

    There are a two special channels that are automatically created when Sync Gateway starts:

    • The public channel, written as ! in the sync function. Documents added to this channel are visible to any user (i.e all users are automatically granted access to the ! channel). This channel can be used as a public distribution channel.

    • The star channel, written as * in the sync function. All documents are added to this channel. So any user that is granted access to the \* channel can access all the documents in the database. A user can be given access to the star channel through the sync function or in the configuration file.

      • Note 1: Sync Gateway automatically assigns documents to the all docs channel. Explicitly assigning a document to it in the Sync Function (i.e channel('*')) will result in unexpected behavior such as receiving the document twice on the client side.

      • Note 2: The star channel doesn’t mean that the user is granted access to all channels. It is only being granted access to 1 channel which contains all documents. This distinction is important when using the requireAccess() Sync Function method.

    The following Sync Function maps the document to the public channel if it contains an isPublic property set to true and grants users with the 'admin' role access to the all docs channel.

    function (doc, oldDoc) {
        if (doc.isPublic) {
        if (doc.type == 'user') {
            access(doc.username, '*');

    Troubleshooting channels

    Inspecting document channels

    You can use the admin REST API to see the channels that documents are assigned to. Issue an \_all_docs request, and add the query parameter ?channels=true to the URL. Here’s a command-line example that uses the HTTPie tool (like a souped-up curl) to look at the channels of the document foo:

    $ http POST 'http://localhost:4985/db/_all_docs?channels=true' keys:='["foo"]'
    HTTP/1.1 200 OK
    Content-Encoding: gzip
    Content-Length: 150
    Content-Type: application/json
    Date: Wed, 07 May 2014 21:52:17 GMT
    Server: Couchbase Sync Gateway/1.00
        "rows": [
                "id": "foo",
                "key": "foo",
                "value": {
                    "channels": [
                    "rev": "1-86effb929acbf953905dd0e3974f6051"
        "total_rows": 16,
        "update_seq": 26

    The output shows that the document is in the channels short and word.

    Inspecting user/role channels

    You can use the admin REST API to see what channels a user or role has access to:

    $ curl http://localhost:4985/db/_user/pupshaw
        "admin_channels": [
        "admin_roles": [
        "all_channels": [
        "name": "pupshaw",
        "roles": [

    The output shows that the user pupshaw has access to channels all and hoopy.