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Advanced connection details

How Couchbase SDKs connect to the cluster, and what an application developer or administration should be aware of.

Basic connection overview

Couchbase is a distributed network system with many services. Couchbase SDKs simplify the connection process to the system by providing a convenient and unified access point which allows applications to use these services across one or more nodes without knowing which services are on which nodes and without needing to know the precise details of the cluster topology or membership.

How Couchbase SDKs connect to the cluster

Couchbase SDKs connect to the cluster using a two step process. The first step is the initial connection to the cluster known as bootstrapping, and the second step is connecting to individual services.

The term connection is used loosely here to indicate a logical connection. It is often the case that the SDK will use the same physical (TCP) connection for both initial bootstrapping and subsequent service access.

Bootstrapping

Initially the SDK connects to a single node within the cluster (the location of the node is provided as input by the application). Once connected to a cluster node, the SDK will retrieve the cluster map containing a list of all nodes in the cluster and all the services they provide. It is during this step that the SDK also performs authentication and other forms of negotiation.

Bootstrapping is done at the bucket level, as each bucket contains its own set of services and authentication parameters. Connecting to multiple buckets thus requires multiple SDK handles or instances.

Service (data) access

Once the SDK has been successfully bootstrapped it may now interact with cluster services. These cluster services provide access points for data access (such as key-value, query, and MapReduce).

As Couchbase is a distributed service, the SDK will connect to all cluster nodes and access services on each node of the cluster, balancing the load between cluster nodes. For key-value operations, the SDK will know which node is appropriate for a given item (see [vBucket algorithm]). For Query and MapReduce services, the SDK will evenly select nodes to be used as targets for queries.

How SDKs handle node additions and removals

Over the lifetime of a Couchbase cluster, individual cluster nodes may be added or removed.

Couchbase SDKs will detect when a node has been added or removed and will internally (and transparently) re-bootstrap themselves to learn the new cluster topology.

How SDKs handle node failures

If a node has failed, the Couchbase SDK will not detect this until the node has been [Failed Over]. Once a node has been failed over, a new cluster map is generated and the SDK will no longer attempt to access that node.

Failing over a node causes the node to be removed from the cluster map and promoting a replica node to be used in its stead if the bucket has replicas configured. If no replicas are configured then the data located on the failed-over node will remain inaccessible until the node is added back to the cluster, or the cluster is rebalanced (and the data lost).

If a failed node is not failed over, the SDK and the rest of the system will treat this as a temporary failure. Data operations directed to the failed node will fail with various errors or exceptions (depending on how the node failed) until the node is either failed over or fixed.

Bootstrapping from multiple nodes for redundancy

While an SDK only needs to know the location of a single node in the cluster in order to be able to bootstrap, it is considered best practice to specify multiple nodes when connecting.

Specifying multiple nodes reduces the chance of bootstrap failure in case the cluster topology changes or one of the nodes have failed. When specifying multiple nodes, the SDK will attempt to successfully bootstrap from each node, in sequence.

To graphically demonstrate the benefit of using multiple nodes for bootstrap, consider a 4 node cluster with the following nodes:

  • 192.168.1.101

  • 192.168.1.102

  • 192.168.1.103

  • 192.168.1.104

Currently, the application only specifies 192.168.1.101 to the SDK when connecting. If the node 192.168.1.101 fails, any future instantiations of the SDK will fail to connect since the node specified is down, and thus can no longer be used to determine cluster topology.

If the application specifies all nodes (192.168.1.101, 192.168.1.102, 192.168.1.103, and 192.168.1.104), then in the event that the first node (192.168.1.101) is unavailable, the SDK will proceed to bootstrap from the next node.

It is not required (though recommended for redundancy purposes) to specify all nodes in the cluster.
Once the SDK instance has been bootstrapped, it discards the initial bootstrap list (received as input from the application) and replaces it with the list of nodes it has discovered by processing the cluster map. For this reason, already-running instances of an SDK which were bootstrapped using the now-failed node will continue to function properly.

Connection performance and resource considerations

Each SDK instance ("Bucket") within an application consumes several TCP connections. Administrators and applications should be mindful of the network capacity when sizing their application deployments. Having too many open TCP connections will result in negative performance both at the cluster and application level.

Currently there is a hard limit of 10,000 concurrent key-value connections to any cluster node. This effectively means a limit of 10,000 SDK "Bucket" objects.

Each SDK instance creates connections to the following services on each node. All connections are considered long-lived, meaning they are open for the lifetime of the SDK instance:

  • Key-Value service (Typically on port 11210)

  • Bootstrapping (usually performed in-band with key-value service. Port 11210)

  • MapReduce (typically on port 8092)

  • Query (typically port 8093)

Depending on the version of Couchbase server and SDK being used, and depending on the bucket type, an additional connection to port 8091 (for bootstrapping) may be used.

Some SDK implementations will immediately open connections to all the above ports as soon as an instance is bootstrapped. Other implementations may lazily connect (that is, only when the service is actually needed). In general however, the total number of TCP connections created by an application can be calculated by multiplying the services it uses by the number of nodes.

For example, an SDK instance in a four-node cluster will consume the following number of connections:

  • KV access (4)

  • Query access (4)

  • MapReduce access (4)

If only key-value APIs are used, the instance will consume 4 connections. If key-value and query are used, the instance will consume 8 connections. If key value and query and MapReduce are used, the instance will consume 12 connections.