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LET clause

  • Couchbase Server 4.0
Use LET to create variables for later use within a query.

Purpose

In a query expression, it is sometimes useful to store the result of a sub-expression in order to use it in subsequent clauses. You can do this with the LET keyword, which creates a new variable and initializes it with the result of the expression you supply. You can use the LET clause within an array, in a for-loop, or independently.

For example, create a variable for the minimum latitude and set it to 71, as detailed in Example 1:

SELECT airportname, geo.lat
FROM `travel-sample`
LET minimum_lat = 71
WHERE geo.lat > minimum_lat;

Without the LET clause, your complex queries would need to be divided into two separate queries:

  • One query to get a particular value (or set of values), and

  • One query to use the value (or values) from the first query.

If the LET variable is referenced in the WHERE clause, then it is evaluated before the WHERE clause; otherwise, it is evaluated after the WHERE clause.

Couchbase Server 6.5 and later support chained LET clauses. A variable that you create in one LET clause may be referenced in a later LET clause, as detailed in Example 3.

Each LET alias needs to be unique within its scope.

Prerequisites

The LET clause can only be used in a SELECT statement, and in order for you to select data from a document or keyspace, you must have the query_select privilege on the document or keyspace. For more details about user roles, see Authorization.

Syntax

let clause
LET alias '=' expr [ ',' alias '=' expr ]*

Arguments

alias

[Required] String or expression that represents the name of the variable.

expr

[Required] String or expression that represents the value assigned to its alias.

Examples

Example 1. Use LET to set variables to a number, an operation on a field, and a subquery

Find all airports and cities between certain latitudes in a country with a landmark.

SELECT t1.airportname, t1.geo.lat, t1.geo.lon, t1.city, t1.type
FROM `travel-sample` t1
LET min_lat = 71, max_lat = ABS(t1.geo.lon)*4+1,
    place = (SELECT RAW t2.country
            FROM `travel-sample` t2
            WHERE t2.type = "landmark")
WHERE t1.type = "airport"
AND t1.geo.lat > min_lat
AND t1.geo.lat < max_lat
AND t1.country IN place;
Results
[
  {
    "airportname": "Wiley Post Will Rogers Mem",
    "city": "Barrow",
    "lat": 71.285446,
    "type": "airport"
  },
  {
    "airportname": "Dillant Hopkins Airport",
    "city": "Keene",
    "lat": 72.270833,
    "type": "airport"
  }
]
Example 2. Use LET to set a variable in an array

Find all Sunday flights (day = 0) to the Charles De Gaulle airport (CDG) on Air India (AI) airlines.

SELECT t1.airline, t1.destinationairport, sch AS schedule
FROM `travel-sample` AS t1
LET sch = ARRAY v FOR v IN t1.schedule WHEN v.day = 0 END (1)
WHERE type = "route"
AND t1.destinationairport = "CDG"
AND t1.airline = "AI";
Results
[
  {
    "airline": "AI",
    "destinationairport": "CDG",
    "schedule": [
      {
        "day": 0,
        "flight": "AI988",
        "utc": "00:24:00"
      },
      {
        "day": 0,
        "flight": "AI972",
        "utc": "17:32:00"
      }
    ]
  }
]
1 In this example, the variable sch is not used in the WHERE clause, but used only in the projection. Therefore, the Query Planner defers the evaluation to post-predicate evaluation, so there is no overhead for documents that are not qualified by the predicates.
Example 3. Use chained LET

Variant of Example 1.

SELECT t1.airportname, t1.geo.lat, t1.geo.lon, t1.city, t1.type
FROM `travel-sample` t1
LET max_lat = ABS(t1.geo.lon)*4+1, (1)
    min_lat = max_lat - 90, (2)
    place = (SELECT RAW t2.country
            FROM `travel-sample` t2
            WHERE t2.type = "landmark")
WHERE t1.type = "airport"
AND t1.geo.lat > min_lat
AND t1.geo.lat < max_lat
AND t1.country IN place;
Results
[
  {
    "airportname": "Wideawake Field",
    "city": "Georgetown Acension Island Santa Helena",
    "lat": -7.969597,
    "lon": -14.393664,
    "type": "airport"
  }
]
1 The variable max_lat is defined in the first clause of the LET statement.
2 The variable max_lat is referenced by the min_lat variable in the second clause of the LET statement.