GROUP BY Clause

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    The GROUP BY clause arranges aggregate values into groups, based on one or more fields.

    Purpose

    Use the GROUP BY clause to arrange aggregate values into groups of one or more fields. This GROUP BY clause follows the WHERE clause and precedes the optional LETTING, HAVING, and ORDER BY clauses.

    Syntax

    group-by-clause ::= GROUP BY group-term [ ',' group-term ]* [ letting-clause ] [ having-clause ] | letting-clause
    'GROUP' 'BY' group-term ( ',' group-term )* letting-clause? having-clause? | letting-clause

    Group Term

    group-term ::= expr [ [ AS ] alias ]
    expr ( ('AS')? alias )?

    At least one group term is required.

    expr

    String or expression representing an aggregate function or field to group together.

    AS Alias

    Assigns another name to the group term. For details, see AS Clause.

    Assigning an alias to the group term is optional. If you assign an alias, the AS keyword may be omitted.

    LETTING Clause

    letting-clause ::= LETTING alias '=' expr [ ',' alias '=' expr ]*

    'LETTING' alias '=' expr (',' alias '=' expr)*

    [Optional] Stores the result of a sub-expression in order to use it in subsequent clauses.

    alias

    String or expression representing the name of the clause to be referred to.

    expr

    String or expression representing the value of the LETTING alias variable.

    HAVING Clause

    having-clause ::= HAVING cond

    'HAVING' cond

    [Optional] To return items where aggregate values meet the specified conditions.

    cond

    String or expression representing the clause of aggregate values.

    Limitations

    GROUP BY works only on a group key or aggregate function.

    A query needs a predicate on a leading index key to ensure that the optimizer can select a secondary index for the query. Without a matching predicate, the query will use the primary index. The simplest predicate is WHERE leading-index-key IS NOT MISSING. This is usually only necessary in queries which do not otherwise have a WHERE clause; for example, some GROUP BY and aggregate queries. For more details, refer to Index Selection.

    Examples

    Example 1. Group the unique landmarks by city and list the top 4 cities with the most landmarks in descending order
    SELECT city City, COUNT(DISTINCT name) LandmarkCount
    FROM `travel-sample`
    WHERE type = "landmark"
    GROUP BY city
    ORDER BY LandmarkCount DESC
    LIMIT 4;
    Results
    [
      {
        "City": "San Francisco",
        "LandmarkCount": 797
      },
      {
        "City": "London",
        "LandmarkCount": 443
      },
      {
        "City": "Los Angeles",
        "LandmarkCount": 284
      },
      {
        "City": "San Diego",
        "LandmarkCount": 197
      }
    ]
    Example 2. Use LETTING to find cities that have a minimum number of things to see
    SELECT city City, COUNT(DISTINCT name) LandmarkCount
    FROM `travel-sample`
    WHERE type = "landmark"
    GROUP BY city
    LETTING MinimumThingsToSee = 400
    HAVING COUNT(DISTINCT name) > MinimumThingsToSee;
    Results
    [
      {
        "City": "London",
        "LandmarkCount": 443
      },
      {
        "City": "San Francisco",
        "LandmarkCount": 797
      }
    ]
    Example 3. Use HAVING to specify cities that have more than 180 landmarks
    SELECT city City, COUNT(DISTINCT name) LandmarkCount
    FROM `travel-sample`
    WHERE type = "landmark"
    GROUP BY city
    HAVING COUNT(DISTINCT name) > 180;
    Results
    [
      {
        "City": "London",
        "LandmarkCount": 443
      },
      {
        "City": "Los Angeles",
        "LandmarkCount": 284
      },
      {
        "City": "San Francisco",
        "LandmarkCount": 797
      },
      {
        "City": "San Diego",
        "LandmarkCount": 197
      }
    ]
    The above HAVING clause must use the aggregate function COUNT instead of its alias LandmarkCount.
    Example 4. Use HAVING to specify landmarks that begin with an "S" or higher
    SELECT city City, COUNT(DISTINCT name) LandmarkCount
    FROM `travel-sample`
    WHERE type = "landmark"
    GROUP BY city
    HAVING city > "S";
    Results
    [
      {
        "City": "Santa Barbara",
        "LandmarkCount": 53
      },
      {
        "City": "San Francisco",
        "LandmarkCount": 797
      },
      {
        "City": "Stable Yd",
        "LandmarkCount": 1
      },
      {
        "City": "Wembley",
        "LandmarkCount": 1
      },
    ...

    (execution: 661.998813ms docs: 138)

    Example 5. Using WHERE yields the same results as HAVING, however, WHERE is faster
    SELECT city City, COUNT(DISTINCT name) LandmarkCount
    FROM `travel-sample`
    WHERE type = "landmark"
    AND city > "S"
    GROUP BY city
    Results
    [
      {
        "City": "San Luis Obispo",
        "LandmarkCount": 1
      },
      {
        "City": "Twentynine Palms",
        "LandmarkCount": 1
      },
      {
        "City": "Westlake Village",
        "LandmarkCount": 1
      },
      {
        "City": "Surrey",
        "LandmarkCount": 1
      },
    ...

    (execution: 386.857082ms docs: 138)

    The WHERE clause is faster because WHERE gets processed before any GROUP BY and doesn’t have access to aggregated values. HAVING gets processed after GROUP BY and is used to constrain the resultset to only those with aggregated values.
    Example 6. Using an alias for a group term
    SELECT Hemisphere, COUNT(DISTINCT name) AS LandmarkCount
    FROM `travel-sample` AS l
    WHERE type="landmark"
    GROUP BY CASE
      WHEN l.geo.lon <0 THEN "West"
      ELSE "East"
    END AS Hemisphere;
    Results
    [
      {
        "Hemisphere": "East",
        "LandmarkCount": 459
      },
      {
        "Hemisphere": "West",
        "LandmarkCount": 3885
      }
    ]
    The CASE expression categorizes each landmark into the Western hemisphere if its longitude is negative, or the Eastern hemisphere otherwise. The alias in the GROUP BY clause enables you to refer to the CASE expression in the SELECT clause.