User-Defined Functions

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    You can call a user-defined function in any expression where you can call a built-in function.

    Description

    When you have created a user-defined function, you can call it in any expression, just like a built-in function. User-defined functions have the same syntax as built-in functions, with brackets () to contain any arguments.

    The name of the function is usually an unqualified identifier, such as func1 or `func-1`. In this case, the path to the function is determined by the current query context.

    To call a global function in a particular namespace, the function name must be a qualified identifier with a namespace, such as default:func1. Similarly, to call a scope function in a particular scope, the function name must be a qualified identifier with the full path to a scope, such as default:`travel-sample`.inventory.func1. Refer to Global Functions and Scope Functions for more details.

    The name of a user-defined function is case-sensitive, unlike that of a built-in function. You must call the user-defined function using the same case that was used when it was created.

    It is not possible to call a user-defined function in an expression if the function has side effects, such as performing mutations. When you do this, an error is generated.

    Arguments

    A user-defined function has zero, one, or more arguments, separated by commas, just like a built-in function. Each argument is a N1QL expression required by the function.

    If the function was created with named parameters, you must supply all the arguments that were specified when the function was created. If the function was created without named parameters, you cannot supply an argument. If the function is variadic, you can supply as many arguments as needed, or none.

    Return Value

    The function returns one value, of any valid N1QL type. The result (and the data type of the result) depend on the expression or code that were used to define the function.

    If you supply the wrong number of arguments, or arguments with the wrong data type, the possible results differ, depending on whether the function is variadic, or requires a definite number of arguments.

    If the function requires a definite number of arguments:

    • If you do not supply enough arguments, the function generates error 10104: Incorrect number of arguments.

    • If you supply too many arguments, the function generates error 10104: Incorrect number of arguments.

    • If any of the arguments have the wrong data type, the function may return unexpected results, depending on the function expression or code.

    If the function is variadic:

    • If you do not supply enough arguments, the function may return unexpected results, depending on the function expression or code.

    • If you supply too many arguments, the extra parameters are ignored.

    • If any of the arguments have the wrong data type, the function may return unexpected results, depending on the function expression or code.

    Examples

    Refer to CREATE FUNCTION for details on creating user-defined functions.

    For simplicity, none of these examples implement any data validation or error checking. If necessary, you can use conditional operators to check the parameters of a user-defined function, and the ABORT() function to generate an error if something is wrong.

    Example 1. Inline function with expression

    The following statement creates a function called to_meters, which converts feet to meters.

    CREATE FUNCTION to_meters(...) { args[0] * 0.3048 };

    The following query uses the to_meters function to express the elevation of the selected airports in meters above mean sea level (mamsl). The built-in ROUND function is used to round the output to zero decimal places.

    Query
    SELECT airportname, ROUND(to_meters(geo.alt)) AS mamsl
    FROM `travel-sample`.inventory.airport
    LIMIT 5;
    Result
    [
      {
        "airportname": "Calais Dunkerque",
        "mamsl": 4
      },
      {
        "airportname": "Peronne St Quentin",
        "mamsl": 90
      },
      {
        "airportname": "Les Loges",
        "mamsl": 130
      },
      {
        "airportname": "Couterne",
        "mamsl": 219
      },
      {
        "airportname": "Bray",
        "mamsl": 111
      }
    ]
    Example 2. Inline function with subquery

    The following statement creates a function called locations, which selects name and address information from all documents with the specified activity in the landmark keyspace.

    CREATE FUNCTION locations(vActivity) { (
      SELECT id, name, address, city
      FROM `travel-sample`.inventory.landmark
      WHERE activity = vActivity) };

    The following query uses the locations function as the FROM term in a SELECT query. Compare this query with Example 2 in FROM Subquery.

    Query
    SELECT l.name, l.city
    FROM locations("eat") AS l
    WHERE l.city = "Gillingham";
    Result
    [
      {
        "city": "Gillingham",
        "name": "Hollywood Bowl"
      },
      {
        "city": "Gillingham",
        "name": "Thai Won Mien"
      },
      {
        "city": "Gillingham",
        "name": "Spice Court"
      },
      {
        "city": "Gillingham",
        "name": "Beijing Inn"
      },
      {
        "city": "Gillingham",
        "name": "Ossie's Fish and Chips"
      }
    ]
    Example 3. External functions

    For this example, it is assumed that you have created two external functions:

    1. A function called geohash, which depends on the JavaScript encodeGeoHash function in the geohash-js library;

    2. A function called adjacent, which depends on the JavaScript calculateAdjacent function in the geohash-js library.

    Refer to Example 7 in CREATE FUNCTION for details.

    The following query uses the geohash and adjacent functions to find the 9-figure geohash of the selected hotel, and the geohashes immediately to the north, south, west, and east.

    Query
    SELECT area,
           adjacent(area, "top") AS north,
           adjacent(area, "bottom") AS south,
           adjacent(area, "left") AS west,
           adjacent(area, "right") AS east
    FROM `travel-sample`.inventory.hotel
    LET area = SUBSTR(geohash(geo.lat, geo.lon), 0, 9)
    WHERE name = "Sachas Hotel";
    Result
    [
      {
        "area": "gcw2m05h1",
        "east": "gcw2m05h4",
        "north": "gcw2m05h3",
        "south": "gcw2m055c",
        "west": "gcw2m05h0"
      }
    ]

    To view the first geohash on a map, go to http://geohash.org/gcw2m05h1 and follow one of the links provided. You can view the other geohashes by editing the URL. At the latitude of the selected hotel, each geohash represents an area of approximately 3 𐄂 5 meters.