OS Level Tuning


      OS level parameters you can use to tune _Couchbase Sync Gateway


      To get the most out of Sync Gateway, it may be necessary to tune a few parameters of the OS.

      Raising the maximum number of file descriptors available to Sync Gateway is important because it directly affects the maximum number of sockets the Sync Gateway can have open, and therefore the maximum number of endpoints that the Sync Gateway can support.

      The instructions here are geared towards CentOS deployments.

      Operating System File Descriptor Limits

      Increase the max number of file descriptors available to all processes.

      Set the number of system wide file descriptors
      1. Edit the /etc/sysctl.conf file

      2. Add the following line.

        fs.file-max = 500000
      3. Apply the changes by running the following command.

        $ sysctl -p (1)
        1 The -p will persist the change across reboots

      Sync Gateway File Descriptor Limits

      Configure the maximum number of open files descriptors in Sync Gateway in line with the above changes.

      Example 1. Set the Maximum File Descriptors
        "max_file_descriptors:": 250000, (1)
      1 Default = 5000

      Service File Descriptor Limits

      For systemd config

      The /usr/lib/systemd/system/sync_gateway.service has a hardcoded limit specified by LimitNOFILE=65535.

      To increase that, edit the /sync_gateway.service file to your desired value and restart the service.

      Process File Descriptor Limits

      If you are running Sync Gateway outside of systemd, use the following instructions.

      If you are using systemd, you can skip this section.
      1. Increase the ulimit setting for max number of file descriptors available to a single process. For example, setting it to 250K will allow the Sync Gateway to have 250K connections open at any given time, and leave 250K remaining file descriptors available for the rest of the processes on the machine. These settings are just an example, you will probably want to tune them for your own particular use case.

        $ ulimit -n 250000
      2. To persist the ulimit change across reboots, add the following lines to:

        * soft nofile 250000
        * hard nofile 250000
      3. Verify your changes by running the following commands.

        $ cat /proc/sys/fs/file-max
        $ ulimit -n

        The output value of both commands above should be 250000.

      TCP Keepalive Parameters

      If you have already raised the maximum number of file descriptors available to Sync Gateway, but you are still seeing "too many open files" errors, you may need to tune the TCP Keepalive parameters.

      Understanding the Problem

      Mobile endpoints tend to abruptly disconnect from the network without closing their side of the connection, as described in Section 2.3. (Checking for dead peers) of the TCP-Keepalive-HOWTO.

      By default, these connections will hang around for approximately 7200 seconds (2 hours) before they are detected to be dead and cleaned up by the tcp/ip stack of the Sync Gateway process. If enough of these connections accumulate, you can end up seeing "too many open files" errors on Sync Gateway.

      If you are seeing "too many open files" errors, you can count the number of established connections coming into your sync gateway with the following command:

      $ lsof -p <sync_gw_pid> | grep -i established | wc -l

      If the value returned is near your max file descriptor limit, then you can either try increasing the max file descriptor limit even higher, or tuning the TCP Keepalive parameters to reduce the amount of time that dead peers will cause a socket to be held open on their behalf.

      Linux Instructions (CentOS)

      Tuning the TCP Keepalive settings is not without its downsides — it will increase the amount of overall network traffic on your system, because the tcp/ip stack will be sending more frequent Keepalive packets in order to detect dead peers faster.

      The following settings will reduce the amount of time that dead peer connections hang around from approximately 2 hours down to approximately 30 minutes. Add the following lines to your /etc/sysctl.conf file:

      net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_time = 600
      net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_intvl = 60
      net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_probes = 20

      This translates to:

      1. The keepalive routines wait initially for 10 minutes (600 secs) before sending the first keepalive probe

      2. Resend the probe every minute (60 seconds).

      3. If no ACK response is received for 20 consecutive times, the connection is marked as broken.

      To reduce the amount of time even further, you can reduce the tcp_retries2 value. Add the following line to your /etc/sysctl.conf file:

      net.ipv4.tcp_retries2 = 8

      To activate the changes and persist them across reboots, run:

      $ sysctl -p

      See Using TCP keepalive under Linux for more details on setting these parameters.