Manage Logging

      +
      The Logging facility allows a record to be maintained of important events that occur on Couchbase Server.

      Logging Overview

      The Couchbase Logging facility records important events, and saves the details to log files, on disk. Additionally, events of cluster-wide significance are displayed on the Logs screen, in Couchbase Web Console. This may appear as follows:

      loggingScreenBasic

      By default, on Linux systems, log files are saved to /opt/couchbase/var/lib/couchbase/logs; on MacOS, to /Users/username/Library/Application Support/Couchbase/var/lib/couchbase/logs; and on Windows, to C:\Program Files\Couchbase\Server\var\lib\couchbase\logs.

      Collecting Information

      On each node within a Couchbase Server-cluster, logging is performed continuously. A subset of the results can be reviewed in the Couchbase Web Console Logs screen; while all details are saved to the logs directory, as described above. (Note that the logs directory may include audit.log. This is a special log file, used to manage cluster-security, and is handled separately from the other log files. The information provided throughout the remainder of this page — on collecting, uploading, redacting, and more — does not apply to audit.log. For information on audit.log, see Auditing.)

      Additionally, explicit logging can be performed by the user. This allows comprehensive and fully updated information to be generated as required. The output includes everything currently on disk, together with additional data that is gathered in real time. Explicit logging can either be performed for all nodes in the cluster, or for one or more individual nodes. The results are saved as zip files: each zip file contains the log-data generated for an individual node.

      Explicit logging can be performed by means of the Couchbase CLI utility cbcollect_info. The documentation for this utility, provided here, includes a complete list of the log files that can be created, and a description of the contents of each.

      Additionally, administrators with either the Full Admin or Cluster Admin role can perform explicit logging by means of Couchbase Web Console: on the Logs page, left-click on the Collect Information tab, located near the top. (Note that for administrators without either of these roles, this tab does not appear.)

      collectInfo

      This brings up the Collect Information screen:

      collectInformationScreen

      This allows logs and diagnostic information to be collected either from all or from selected nodes within the cluster. It also allows, in the Redact Logs panel, a log redaction-level to be specified (this is described in Applying Redaction, below). The Specify custom temp directory checkbox can be checked to specify the absolute pathname of a directory into which data is temporarily saved, during the collection process. The Specify custom destination directory can be checked to specify the absolute pathname of a directory into which the completed zip files are saved.

      The Upload to Couchbase checkbox is described in Uploading Log Files, below.

      To start the collection-process, left-click on the Start Collecting button. A notification is displayed, indicating that the collection-process is running. A button is provided to allow the collection-process to be stopped, if this should be appropriate. Whenever the collection-process completes for one of the nodes, a notification is displayed, and the collection-process continues, if necessary, for remaining nodes. When the process has completed for all nodes, information is displayed as follows:

      collectInformationComplete

      As this indicates, a set of log files has been created for each node in the cluster. Each file is saved as a zip file in the stated temporary location.

      Uploading Log Files

      Log files can be uploaded to Couchbase, for inspection by Couchbase Support.

      For information on performing upload at the command-prompt, see cbcollect_info. To upload by means of Couchbase Web Console, before starting the collection-process, check the Upload to Couchbase checkbox:

      uploadToCouchbaseCheckbox

      The display changes to the following:

      uploadToCouchbaseDialogBasic

      The dialog now features an Upload to Host field, which contains the server-location to which the customer-data is uploaded. Fields are also provided for Customer Name (required) and Ticket Number (optional). The Upload Proxy field optionally takes the hostname of a remote system, which contains the directory specified by the pathname. If the Bypass Reachability Checks checkbox is left unchecked (which is the default), an attempt is made to gather and upload the collected information without the upload specifications (that is, the upload host, customer name, and optionally, upload proxy) being pre-verified. Otherwise, if the checkbox is checked, the upload specifications are submitted for verification before information is collected and attemptedly uploaded: in which case, if the upload specifications cannot be verified, the collection-operation does not proceed, and an error is flagged on the console.

      When all required information has been entered, to start information-collection, left-click on the Start Collecting button. When collection and upload have been successfully completed, the URL of the uploaded zip file is displayed.

      Getting a Cluster Summary

      A summary of the cluster’s status can be acquired by means of the link at the lower right of the Collect Information panel:

      getClusterSummaryLink

      This brings up the Cluster Summary Info dialog:

      clusterSummaryInfoDialog

      This displayed JSON document, which contains detailed status on the current configuration and status of the entire cluster, can be copied to the clipboard, by left-clicking on the Copy to Clipboard button, at the lower left. This information can then be manually shared with Couchbase Support; either in addition to, or as an alternative to log-collection.

      Understanding Redaction

      Optionally, log files can be redacted. This means that user-data, considered to be private, is removed. Such data includes:

      • Key/value pairs in JSON documents

      • Usernames

      • Query-fields that reference key/value pairs and/or usernames

      • Names and email addresses retrieved during product registration

      • Extended attributes

      This redaction of user-data is referred to as partial redaction. (Full redaction, which will be available in a forthcoming version of Couchbase Server, additionally redacts meta-data.)

      In each modified log file, hashed text (achieved with SHA1) is substituted for redacted text. For example, the following log file fragment displays private data — a Couchbase username:

      0ms [I0] {2506} [INFO] (instance - L:421) Effective connection string:
      couchbase://127.0.0.1?username=Administrator&console_log_level=5&;.
      Bucket=default

      The redacted version of the log file might appear as follows:

      0ms [I0] {2506} [INFO] (instance - L:421) Effective connection string:
      <UD>e07a9ca6d84189c1d91dfefacb832a6491431e95</UD>.
      Bucket=<UD>e16d86f91f9fd0b110be28ad00e348664b435e9e</UD>

      Note that redaction may eliminate some parameters containing non-private data, as well as all parameters containing private.

      Note also that redaction of log files may have one or both of the following consequences:

      • Logged issues will be found harder to diagnose, by both the user and Couchbase Support.

      • Log-collection is significantly more time-consumptive, since redaction is performed at collection-time.

      Applying Redaction

      Redaction of log files saved on the cluster can be applied as required, when performing explicit logging, by means of either cbcollect_info or the Logs facility of Couchbase Web Console.

      For information on performing explicit logging with redaction at the command-prompt, see cbcollect_info.

      To perform explicit logging with redaction by means of Couchbase Web Console, before starting the collection-process, access the Redact Logs panel, on the Collect Information screen. This features two radio-buttons, labeled None and Partial Redaction. Make sure the Partial Redaction radio-button is selected. Guidance on redaction is displayed below it:

      partialRedactionSelection

      Left-click on the Start Collecting button. A notification explains that the collection-process is now running. When the process has completed, a further notification appears, specifying the location (local or remote) of each created zip file. Note that, when redaction has been specified, two zip files are provided for each node: one file containing redacted data, the other unredacted data.

      Redacting Log Files Outside the Cluster

      Certain Couchbase technologies — such as cbbackupmgr, the SDK, connectors, and Mobile — create log files saved outside the Couchbase Cluster. These can be redacted by means of the command-line tool cblogredaction. Multiple log files can be specified simultaneously. Each file must be specified as plain text. Optionally, the salt to be used can be automatically generated.

      For example:

      $ cblogredaction /Users/username/testlog.log -g -o /Users/username -vv
      2018/07/17T11:27:06 WARNING: Automatically generating salt. This will make it difficult to cross reference logs
      2018/07/17T11:27:07 DEBUG: /Users/username/testlog.log - Starting redaction file size is 19034284 bytes
      2018/07/17T11:27:07 DEBUG: /Users/username/testlog.log - Log redacted using salt: <ud>COeAtexHB69hGEf3</ud>
      2018/07/17T11:27:07 INFO: /Users/username/testlog.log - Finished redacting, 50373 lines processed, 740 tags redacted, 0 lines with unmatched tags

      For more information, see the corresponding man page, or run the command with the --h (help) option.

      Log File Locations

      Couchbase Server creates log files in the following locations.

      Platform Location

      Linux

      /opt/couchbase/var/lib/couchbase/logs

      Windows

      C:\Program Files\Couchbase\Server\var\lib\couchbase\logs

      Assumes default installation location

      Mac OS X

      /Users/<username>/Library/Application Support/Couchbase/var/lib/couchbase/logs

      Log File Listing

      The following table lists the log files to be found on Couchbase Server.

      File Log Contents

      audit

      Security audit log for administrators.

      babysitter

      Troubleshooting log for the babysitter process which is responsible for spawning all Couchbase Server processes and respawning them where necessary.

      backup_service

      Log for Backup Service; containing entries at debug, info, warn, and error levels.

      couchdb

      Troubleshooting log for the couchdb subsystem which underlies map-reduce.

      crash-log.bin

      Used to pass service crash reports from the babysitter to the ns_server. For example, if the ns_server is available, any crash of the babysitter’s child is passed directly to the special crash logger service within the ns_server. If the logger service is not attached to the babysiter, then the babysitter saves that crash report to the disk and the ns_server can later obtain and log it even if the babysitter is restarted. This is not a log file in itself.

      debug

      Debug-level troubleshooting for the cluster management component.

      error

      Error-level troubleshooting log for the cluster management component.

      eventing

      Troubleshooting log for the eventing service.

      fts

      Troubleshooting log for the full-text search service.

      goxdcr

      Troubleshooting log for the Cross Data Center Replication (XDCR) component used in Couchbase Server versions after 4.0.

      http_access

      The admin access log records server requests (including administrator logins) to the REST API or Couchbase Web Console. It is output in common log format and contains several important fields such as remote client IP, timestamp, GET/POST request and resource requested, HTTP status code, and so on.

      http_access_internal

      The admin access log records internal server requests (including administrator logins) to the REST API or Couchbase Web Console. It is output in common log format and contains several important fields such as remote client IP, timestamp, GET/POST request and resource requested, HTTP status code, and so on.

      indexer

      Troubleshooting log for the indexing and storage subsystem.

      info

      Info-level troubleshooting log for the cluster management component.

      json_rpc

      Log used by the cluster manager.

      mapreduce_errors

      JavaScript and other view-processing errors are reported in this file.

      memcached

      Contains information relating to the core memcached component, including DCP stream requests and slow operations.
      It is possible to adjust the logging for slow operations. See Adjusting Threshold for Logging Slow Operations for details.

      metakv

      Troubleshooting log for the metakv store, a cluster-wide metadata store.

      ns_couchdb

      Contains information related to starting up the couchdb subsystem.

      projector

      Troubleshooting log for the projector process which is responsible for sending appropriate mutations from Data nodes to Index nodes.

      prometheus

      Log for the instance of Prometheus that runs on the current node, supporting the gathering and management of Couchbase-Server metrics . (See the Metrics Reference, for more information.)

      rebalance

      Contains reports on rebalances that have occurred. Up to the last five reports are maintained. Each report is named in accordance with the time it was run: for example, rebalance_report_2020-03-17T11:10:17Z.json. See the Rebalance Reference, for detailed information.

      reports

      Contains progress and crash reports for the Erlang processes. Due to the nature of Erlang, processes crash and restart upon an error.

      ssl_proxy

      Troubleshooting log for the ssl proxy spawned by the cluster manager.

      stats

      Contains periodic statistic dumps from the cluster management component.

      views

      Troubleshooting log for the view engine, predominantly focusing on the changing of partition states.

      xdcr

      Troubleshooting log for the Cross Data Center Replication (XDCR) component used in Couchbase Server versions prior to 4.0.

      xdcr_errors

      Error-level troubleshooting log for the XDCR component used in Couchbase Server versions prior to 4.0.

      xcdr_trace

      Trace-level troubleshooting log for the XDCR component used in Couchbase Server versions prior to 4.0. Unless trace-level logging is explicitly turned on this log is empty.

      analytics_access.log

      Information on access attempts made to the REST/HTTP port of the Analytics Service.

      analytics_cbas_debug.log

      Debugging information, related to the cbas process.

      analytics_dcpdebug.log

      DCP-specific debugging information related to the Analytics Service.

      analytics_dcp_failed_ingestion.log

      Information on documents that have failed to be imported/ingested from the Data Service into the Analytics Service.

      analytics_debug.log

      Events logged by the Analytics Service at the DEBUG logging level.

      analytics_error.log

      Events logged by the Analytics Service at the ERROR logging level.

      analytics_info.log

      Events logged by the Analytics Service at the INFO logging level.

      analytics_shutdown.log

      Information concerning the shutting down of the Analytics Service.

      analytics_warn.log

      Events logged by the Analytics Service at the WARN logging level.

      Log File Rotation

      The memcached log file is rotated when it has reached 10MB in size; twenty rotations being maintained — the current file, plus nineteen compressed rotations. Other logs are automatically rotated after they have reached 40MB in size; ten rotations being maintained — the current file, plus nine compressed rotations.

      To provide custom rotation-settings for each component, add the following to the static_config file:

      {disk_sink_opts_disk_debug,
              [{rotation, [{size, 10485760},
              {num_files, 10}]}]}.

      This rotates the debug.log at 10MB, and keeps ten copies of the log: the current log and nine compressed logs.

      Log rotation settings can be changed. Note, however, that this is not advised; and that only the default log rotation settings are supported by Couchbase.

      Changing Log File Locations

      The default log location on Linux systems is /opt/couchbase/var/lib/couchbase/logs. The location can be changed. Note, however, that this is not advised; and that only the default log location is supported by Couchbase.

      To change the location, proceed as follows:

      1. Log in as root or sudo and navigate to the directory where Couchbase Server is installed. For example: /opt/couchbase/etc/couchbase/static_config.

      2. Edit the static_config file: change the error_logger_mf_dir variable, specifying a different directory. For example: {error_logger_mf_dir, "/home/user/cb/opt/couchbase/var/lib/couchbase/logs"}

      3. Stop and restart Couchbase Server. See Startup and Shutdown.

      Changing Log File Levels

      The default logging level for all log files is debug, except for couchdb, which is set to info. Logging levels can be changed. Note, however, that this is not advised; and that only the default logging levels are supported by Couchbase.

      Either persistent or dynamic changes can be made to logging levels.

      Persistent Changes

      Persistent means that changes continue to be implemented, should a Couchbase Server reboot occur. To make a persistent change on Linux systems, proceed as follows:

      1. Log in as root or sudo, and navigate to the directory where you installed Couchbase. For example: /opt/couchbase/etc/couchbase/static_config.

      2. Edit the static_config file and change the desired log component. (Parameters with the loglevel_ prefix establish logging levels.)

      3. Stop and restart Couchbase Server. See Startup and Shutdown.

      Dynamic Changes

      Dynamic means that if a Couchbase Server reboot occurs, the changed logging levels revert to the default. To make a dynamic change, execute a curl POST command, using the following syntax:

      curl -X POST -u adminName:adminPassword HOST:PORT/diag/eval \
                    -d ‘ale:set_loglevel(<log_component>,<logging_level>).’
      • log_component: The default log level (except couchdb) is debug; for example ns_server. The available loggers are ns_server, couchdb, user, Menelaus, ns_doctor, stats, rebalance, cluster, views, mapreduce_errors , xdcr and error_logger.

      • logging_level: The available log levels are debug, info, warn, and error.

        curl -X POST -u Administrator:password http://127.0.0.1:8091/diag/eval \
                        -d 'ale:set_loglevel(ns_server,error).

      Collecting Logs Using the CLI

      To collect logs, use the CLI command cbcollect_info.

      To start and stop log-collection, and to collect log-status, use:

      Collecting Logs Using the REST API

      The Logging REST API provides the endpoints for retrieving log and diagnostic information.

      To retrieve log information use the /diag and /sasl_logs REST endpoints.

      Adjusting Threshold for Logging Slow Operations

      It is possible to examine and/or alter the logging threshold for slow-running operations. This is done using the mcctl command that comes packaged with the Couchbase server installation. The command only gets or sets information for the node it’s run on.

      Getting Threshold Details

      The current settings are retrieved by using the mcctl cli to execute the get sla command:

      Getting threshold details
      /opt/couchbase/bin/mcctl --host localhost -u Administrator -P password \
      get sla
      Result
      {"comment":"Current MCBP SLA configuration",
      "version":1,
      "default":{"slow":"500 ms"}},
      "COMPACT_DB":{"slow":"1800 s"},
      "DELETE_BUCKET":{"slow":"10 s"},
      "SEQNO_PERSISTENCE":{"slow":"30 s"}
      }

      The JSON message returned gives details of the operation being logged and the threshold time that will cause a timing message to be logged.

      Setting the Threshold

      The mcctl command line interface is also used to set the thresholds for the memcahe operations:

      Set logging threshold example
      /opt/couchbase/bin/mcctl --host localhost -u Administrator -P password \
      set sla '{"version":1, "DELETE_BUCKET":{"slow":"100 ms"}}'

      In this example, the threshold for the DELETE_BUCKET operation is being set to 100ms. If a bucket deletion operation takes longer than this, then an message will be logged.

      As an added minor convenience, the time interval can also be specified without a space:

      /opt/couchbase/bin/mcctl --host localhost -u Administrator -P password \
      set sla '{"version":1, "DELETE_BUCKET":{"slow":"100ms"}}'

      It is also possible to set the threshold for all the op-codes in a single command by using the default code:

      Set all thresholds to 100 ms.
      /opt/couchbase/bin/mcctl --host localhost -u Administrator -P password \
      set sla '{"version":1, "default":{"slow":"100 ms"}}'
      Time units in threshold settings

      A number of different time units can be used when setting the thresholds:

      ns

      nanoseconds

      us

      microseconds

      ms

      milliseconds

      s

      seconds

      m

      minutes

      h

      hours

      Setting the DELETE_BUCKET threshold to 1 minute.
      /opt/couchbase/bin/mcctl --host localhost -u Administrator -P password \
      set sla '{"version":1, "DELETE_BUCKET":{"slow":"1 m"}}'

      Setting the threshold values is non-persistent: when the node is restarted, the thresholds are reset to their default values.

      Setting Threshold Defaults

      The default values are loaded from the file: /opt/couchbase/etc/couchbase/kv/opcode-attributes.json when the node is started.

      {
        "comment": "Default configuration file. Do not edit, but override the settings in opcode-attributes.d/",
        "version": 1,
        "default": {
          "slow": "500 ms"
        },
        "compact_db": {
          "slow": "30 m"
        },
        "create_bucket": {
          "slow": "70 ms"
        },
        "select_bucket": {
          "slow": "10 ms"
        },
        "delete_bucket": {
          "slow": "10 s"
        },
        "seqno_persistence": {
          "slow": "30 s"
        }
      }

      These values can be overriden by creating another file in the /opt/couchbase/etc/couchbase/kv/opcode-attributes.d directory. The easiest way to do this is to copy the existing settings file into the directory, making sure that there isn’t an existing file in the directory:

      cd /opt/couchbase/etc/couchbase/kv/
      
      cp opcode-attributes.json opcode-attributes.d

      Edit /opt/couchbase/etc/couchbase/kv/opcode-attributes.d/opcode-attributes.json with the new settings.

      These settings only apply to the node where the changes are made. To change the threshold across the cluster, then all the configurations must be applied to each node.