UPSERT

  • concept
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    UPSERT is used to insert a new record or update an existing one. If the document doesn’t exist it will be created. UPSERT is a combination of INSERT and UPDATE.

    Prerequisites

    RBAC Privileges

    User executing the UPSERT statement must have the Query Update and Query Insert privileges on the target keyspace. If the statement has any RETURNING clauses, then the Query Select privilege is also required on the keyspaces referred in the respective clauses. For more details about user roles, see Authorization.

    Please note that the examples below will alter the data in your sample buckets. To restore your sample data, remove and reinstall the travel-sample bucket. Refer to Sample Buckets for details.

    For example,

    • To execute the following statement, you must have the Query Update and Query Insert privileges on `travel-sample`.inventory.hotel.

      UPSERT INTO `travel-sample`.inventory.hotel (KEY, VALUE)
      VALUES ("key1", { "type" : "hotel", "name" : "new hotel" });
    • To execute the following statement, you must have the Query Update and Query Insert privileges on `travel-sample`.inventory.hotel and the Query Select privilege on `travel-sample`.inventory.hotel also (for RETURNING clause).

      UPSERT INTO `travel-sample`.inventory.hotel (KEY, VALUE)
      VALUES ("key1", { "type" : "hotel", "name" : "new hotel" })
      RETURNING *;
      Result:
      [
        {
          "hotel": {
            "name": "new hotel",
            "type": "hotel"
          }
        }
      ]
    • To execute the following statement, you must have the Query Update and Query Insert privileges on `travel-sample`.inventory.landmark and Query Select privilege on `beer-sample`.

      UPSERT INTO `travel-sample`.inventory.landmark (KEY foo, VALUE bar)
      SELECT META(doc).id AS foo, doc AS bar FROM `beer-sample` AS doc WHERE type = "brewery";
    A user with the Data Writer privilege may set documents to expire. When the document expires, the data service deletes the document, even though the user may not have the Query Delete privilege.

    Syntax

    upsert ::= 'UPSERT' 'INTO' target-keyspace ( insert-values | insert-select )
                returning-clause?
    Syntax diagram: refer to source code listing
    target-keyspace

    Insert Target

    insert-values

    Insert Values

    insert-select

    Insert Select

    returning-clause

    RETURNING Clause

    Insert Target

    target-keyspace ::= keyspace-ref ( 'AS'? alias )?
    Syntax diagram: refer to source code listing

    Specifies the keyspace into which to upsert documents.

    keyspace-ref

    Keyspace Reference

    alias

    AS Alias

    Keyspace Reference

    keyspace-ref ::= keyspace-path | keyspace-partial
    Syntax diagram: refer to source code listing
    keyspace-path ::= ( namespace ':' )? bucket ( '.' scope '.' collection )?
    Syntax diagram: refer to source code listing
    keyspace-partial ::= collection
    Syntax diagram: refer to source code listing

    Keyspace reference for the insert target. For more details, refer to Keyspace Reference.

    AS Alias

    Assigns another name to the keyspace reference. For details, refer to AS Clause.

    Assigning an alias to the keyspace reference is optional. If you assign an alias to the keyspace reference, the AS keyword may be omitted.

    Insert Values

    insert-values ::= ( '(' 'PRIMARY'? 'KEY' ',' 'VALUE' ( ',' 'OPTIONS' )? ')' )? values-clause
    Syntax diagram: refer to source code listing

    Specifies one or more documents to be upserted using the VALUES clause. For details, refer to Insert Values.

    values-clause

    VALUES Clause

    VALUES Clause

    values-clause ::= 'VALUES'  '(' key ',' value ( ',' options )? ')'
                ( ',' 'VALUES'? '(' key ',' value ( ',' options )? ')' )*
    Syntax diagram: refer to source code listing

    Specify the values as well-formed JSON. Also enables you to set the expiration of the upserted documents. For details, refer to VALUES Clause.

    When updating a document, if the document expiration is not specified, the document expiration is set according to the request-level preserve_expiration parameter. If this is true, the existing document expiration is preserved; if false, the document expiration defaults to 0, meaning the document expiration is the same as the bucket expiration.

    Insert Select

    insert-select ::= '(' 'PRIMARY'? 'KEY' key ( ',' 'VALUE' value )?
                       ( ',' 'OPTIONS' options )? ')' select
    Syntax diagram: refer to source code listing

    Specifies the documents to be upserted as a SELECT statement. Also enables you to set the expiration of the upserted documents. For details, refer to Insert Select.

    When updating a document, if the document expiration is not specified, the document expiration is set according to the request-level preserve_expiration parameter. If this is true, the existing document expiration is preserved; if false, the document expiration defaults to 0, meaning the document expiration is the same as the bucket expiration.

    RETURNING Clause

    returning-clause ::= 'RETURNING' (result-expr (',' result-expr)* |
                        ('RAW' | 'ELEMENT' | 'VALUE') expr)
    Syntax diagram: refer to source code listing

    Specifies the fields that must be returned as part of the results object.

    result-expr

    Result Expression

    Result Expression

    result-expr ::= ( path '.' )? '*' | expr ( 'AS'? alias )?
    Syntax diagram: refer to source code listing

    Specifies an expression on the data you upserted, to be returned as output. For details, refer to Result Expression.

    Example

    The following statement upserts documents with type landmark-pub into the landmark keyspace.

    Query
    UPSERT INTO `travel-sample`.inventory.landmark (KEY, VALUE)
    VALUES ("upsert-1", { "name": "The Minster Inn", "type": "landmark-pub"}),
    ("upsert-2", {"name": "The Black Swan", "type": "landmark-pub"})
    RETURNING VALUE name;
    Result
    [
      "The Minster Inn",
      "The Black Swan"
    ]